Monday, March 16, 2020

Copyright Infringement

Copyright Infringement Copyright infringement refers to the act of using copyrighted works without the authority of the owner thus infringing their rights to reproduce or distribute the material (Campbell and Cotter 24). The intellectual owner of any material has a right to reproduce the work, distribute it, display it publicly, and to perform the work publicly.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Copyright Infringement specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the law, any person who violates any of these rights is an infringer and is liable for infringement. Copyright infringement is a criminal act that attracts severe punishment under the law (Campbell and Cotter 24). Several ways could be used to pursue legal action against an international business that has committed copyright infringement or stolen a patent. These include pursuing legal action in a federal court or filing a case with the department of justice (Achilles 45). The first thing to do after copyright infringement or after a patent has been stolen is to seek assistance from a copyright attorney for available legal options. A victim should then contact law enforcement agencies in order for them to investigate the case. For example, in America, two divisions of FBI investigate all cases linked to intellectual property crimes. These are the Cyber Division, and the Financial Institution Fraud Unit. After investigations, a victim then files a case in a court of law after referral from a law enforcement agency (Achilles 46). The court then assesses the evidence presented by law enforcement agencies and makes a ruling. In most cases, federal courts give the infringer and the victim an opportunity to settle the case out of court. Such cases last for a period of up to one year and cost a lot of money to conclude. Most victims prefer an out, the United States Department of Justice runs the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS), which deals wi th cases of intellectual property infringement (Achilles 47).Advertising Looking for essay on intellectual property? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The department provides guidelines as to what constitutes criminal copyright violations, and defines crimes as either felony or a misdemeanor. In addition, the department determines when to charge infringers and the degree of punishment to be awarded. The department conducts its own investigations and prosecutes the infringer. The process is stressful because a ruling is made only after the department has ascertained that copyright infringement occurred or a patent was stolen. This may take a couple of months or several years to conclude. Copyright infringement and patent theft pose great risks to both businesses and individuals. In such cases, U.S businesses would shy away from conducting business in foreign countries that have cases of copyright infringement. Some coun tries lack stringent laws that protect individuals and businesses from copyright infringement. Therefore, most businesses would stop their operations in such countries. In addition, it would force some businesses to change their business model in order to discourage such acts. This would lead to extra expenses that could affect the effectiveness and efficiency of a business’s operations. Other business would withdraw completely and stop their operations from that country if the infringement causes serious damages such as collapse of the business or great losses in legal suits. Copyright infringement lawsuits are usually expensive and time consuming (Fishman 53). Many businesses would try as much as possible to avoid such lawsuits because of their negative effects on business operations. Achilles, Sabine. Law Enforcement in Copyright Infringement Cases. New York: GRIN Verlag, 2003. Print.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Copyright Infringement specifi cally for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Campbell, Dennis, and Cotter Susan. Copyright Infringement. New York: Kluwer Law International, 1998. Print. Fishman, Stephen. The Copyright Handbook. New York: Nolo, 2011. Print.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Apa Format Cheat Sheet

Space once after periods on the reference list | Title Page Format   p. 229Example: p. 41Exception: You do NOT need to include an Author Note| The title page should include the following five items:   1. Header flush left:Running head: ABBREVIATED TITLE (maximum 50 characters)   2. Page number flush righttitle page is page 1  Ã‚   3. Centered and in the upper half of the page (double spaced): Title of PaperStudent NameAmerican Sentinel University| Body of Paper| 1. Header flush left:ABBREVIATED TITLE   2. Page number flush right   3. Center title on first line of first page  | Headingsp. 62| 4. Use at least one level of heading (Level 1), though depending on paper length, two levels of headings (Levels 1 2) may enhance readability Level 1Centered with bold font, upper and lower case lettersLevel 2Flush left, bold font, upper and lower case letters(See the APA manual for three additional levels of headings used for longer papers). | Introduction/Conclusion  pp. 27; 63| The first paragraph of all papers should introduce the reader to what the paper will be about, and include a purpose statement. It is assumed that the first paragraph is the introduction; therefore, do not use â€Å"Introduction† as a heading. Close the paper with a conclusion or summary that summarizes the key points of the paper. You do not need to say â€Å"In conclusion† because the heading says that. For the â€Å"how-to’s† of writing a great intro and conclusion, see: http://www. princeton. edu/writing/center/resources/introconcl. pdf| Writing Style  p. 69; also see: http://blog. apastyle. org/apastyle/2009/09/use-of-first-person-in-apa-style. html| Writing in the third person is standard at American Sentinel, though there are exceptions (check with your instructor); avoid use of person all together when possible. Chapter 3 of the APA manual has some great writing tips! Here are a few additional resources students have found helpful in writing papers:    1. Principles of Composition 2. Correct use of Punctuation 3. How to do a Final Polish/Edit of your Assignment 4. Mission Critical—Critical Thinking Interactive Tutorial| Quotation 40 Words or More   pp. 92; 171-173|   Use block quotationno quotation marks, page number preceded by the period at the end of the last sentence. Note: Limit use of direct quotations! Better to paraphrase and cite. | Writing in a Series (Seriation) pp. 63-65| Use numbers to indicate an ordered position (e. . , of importance): 1. 2. Can use bullet points if there is no order of importance or chronology: * * As part of a sentence: Options for writing a list in APA format includes (a) numbers, (b) bullet points, and (c) lower case letters in parenthesis, depending on how the list is used. | Writing Numbers pp. 111-113| Numbers expressed in numerals: * 10 and above * Precede a measurement (e. g. , 5 mg)Numbers exp ressed in words: * Below 10 * Beginning a sentence or heading| Citing In Text (Preferred citation format listed)   Note the period follows the parenthesis. There must be a citation on the reference page for each in text citation. | Paraphrasing   p. 170| †¦(Young, 2010). | Direct Quotationp. 170-172| †¦(Young, 2010, p. 3). Note: Limit use of direct quotations! Better to paraphrase and cite. | Secondary source p. 178| †¦ (York, as cited in Johnson, 2009). Note: Only Johnson goes on the reference page. | No Page Numbers p. 171-172|   Give paragraph: (Brown, 2010, para. 3) ORGive section: (Davis, 2010, Abstract section). | No Date   Ã‚  p. 185| †¦(Smith, n. d. ). | Personal Communication   p. 178|   (J. Jones, personal communication, July 12, 2010). Note: Do not include on the reference page | Citing Multiple Authors   No need to memorize, just keep this list handy. pp. 175| Author Number| In Text Citation | Reference List Citation| 2| List both authors every time†¦(Author Author, year)  |   Ã‚  Ã‚  List all authors| 3-5| Cite all authors the first time: †¦(Author, Author, Author, year)Subsequently, cite only the first author followed by et al. †¦(Author et al. , year)  |   Ã‚  Ã‚  List all authors  | 6 or more| First time and every time, cite only the first author followed by et al. Author et al. , year)  Ã‚  Ã‚  |   Ã‚  List all authors| 8 or more| | Include the first seven authors’ names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author’s name, like this:Author, I. , Author, I. , Author, I. , Author, I. , Author, I. , Author, I. , Author, I. ,†¦Author, I. (year). | Reference Citations Always compare to an example as you build and proofread your references. Every reference needs an in text citation. pp. 180-183; examples: pp. 198-224| General| 1. Reference list begins on a new page, with the word Reference centered at the top of the page 2. There should be a hanging indent on every reference. In MS Word, create a hanging indent by going to â€Å"Format† gt; â€Å"Paragraph† gt; â€Å"Special† gt; select Hanging from the drop down menu. 3. Place references in alphabetical order 4. Reference page should be double-spaced like the rest of the paperno extra spaces| Journal article with a doi (Digital Object Identifier):| Zembylas, M. (2008). Adult learners’ emotions in online learning. Distance Education, 29(1), 71-87. doi: 10. 1080/01587910802004852  | Journal article from a secure database (like our library) with no doi:| Tang, F. , Chou, S. Chiang, H. (2005). Students’ perceptions of effective and ineffective clinical instructors. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(4), 187-192. Retrieved from ProQuest database. | Journal article from the Internet with no doi:| Vesely, P. , Bloom, L. , Sherlock, J. (2007). Key elements of building online community: Comparing faculty and student perceptions. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 3(3), 234-246. Retrieved from http://jolt. merlot. org/vol3no3/vesely. pdf  | Book| Weimer, M. (2002). Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chapter in a book with multiple authors| Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In N. K. Denzin Y. S. Lincoln (Eds. ), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed. , pp. 443-466). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. | Website with an author| Berwick, D. (n. d. ). Don Berwicks challenge: Eliminate restrictions on visiting hours in the intensive care unit. Retrieved from http://www. ihi. org/knowledge/Pages/ImprovementStories /DonBerwicksChallengeEliminateRestrictionsonVisitingHoursinthe IntensiveCareUnit. px | Website without an author| Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (2009). Assessment for improvement: Tracking student engagement over time. Retrieved from http://nsse. iub. edu/NSSE_2009_Results/pdf/NSSE_AR_2009. pdf  |   Ã‚  Note: In an APA paper all references would be double-spaced Warning: Indicates a common error. Regarding references: Use only scholarly sources for your assignments. What are scholarly sources? * Peer reviewed journals—examples: Journal of Nursing Education, American Journal of Nursing, Journal of Holistic Nursing. Use only articles available in full text (not just an abstract). * Ideally the articles will have been published in the last 5-10 years. * Text books * Reputable websites—examples: http://nursingworld. org/, http://www. cdc. gov/, http://www. ihi. org/Pages/default. aspx * Wiki’s such as Wikipedia are NOT scholarly sources—do not use. File Name: At American Sentinel University, always name your document (what you save as) using this format: YourName_CourseNumber_Assignment This guide is provided as a convenient reference, but always refer to the APA

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Art Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Art Studies - Essay Example This musical composition is intended for three violins and basso continuo. However, through time its popularity made it the subject of arrangements for a wide variety of ensemble (Pachelbel's Canon 2). In general, the composition conveys both warm and festive emotion through the instruments that are used, rhythm, and overall structure. I believe that this effect is most likely because of the connection of this music to wedding ceremonies. The Canon in D major is also made more interesting and appealing by the composer's extensive use of chord progression. Overall, the composition seems to be an expression of strong, elaborate, and dramatic expression of emotion through the use of complex musical elements. 6. Choose a work of visual art (painting or sculpture) from the same time period as the musical composition that seems to "relate" in some way. Explain your choice. How do these two works of art fit the time period The Canon in D major as stated above is one of the famous musical composition during the Baroque period. Alongside this composition, the St. Theresa in Ecstasy is also created within the same era. This sculpture is crafted by Bernini showing St.

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Clyfford still Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Clyfford still - Essay Example The artist’s feelings are also on the surface as it is clear that Still sympathized with those people and he is also very sad that some people had to live in such conditions. It is also possible to assume that the artist feels that the American society cannot be called a just one, as there are so many poor people who do not enjoy equal rights and do not have equal opportunities with the rest of Americans. As far as I am concerned, the painting made quite a strong impression on me. The first thing that caught my eye was the hands (as well as feet) of the man and the woman. It is clear that very poor people are depicted. The hands can be regarded as a symbol of hard work and large feet can symbolize distances that these people have to cover. I felt sorrow for the couple who had to work very hard day after day. My sad feelings were enhanced by the posture of the couple. The man and the woman are absolutely devastated. I almost felt their weariness. I assume that these two people are not only tired of the work, they are also tired of their lives. The man and the woman are dreaming and I feel they do not have any dreams as they have no enough powers to create any images in their heads, since they are too tired. Finally, one element attracted my special attention. The horseshoe, which is the symbol of good luck, can be regarded as a symbol of hope in the painting. The couple could hope that they might someday overcome their difficulties and live a happy and prosperous life. However, I do not feel that there is any hope for the two people. Unfortunately, when I am looking at the painting, I can only see despair and endless suffering of the couple as well as millions of other people all over the

Friday, January 24, 2020

What Were The Causes Of The Russian Revolution Essay -- essays researc

Before the war. Before the war, there were lots of problems which led up to the revolution and we call them the long term causes. The peasants working and living conditions were very bad but the government made it even worse by its own policies. Russia needed to develop its industries, so that it was a modern agricultural country instead of a backward one and also to remain in an important military power. To aid this dilemma the government invested in enormous amounts of money in improving Russia’s industries. Where did most of this money come from? From the pockets of the people in Russia! To do this, the peasants had to pay huge taxes not only on grain but on nearly all everyday items such as alcohol and salt! Nevertheless, the workers’ wages still stayed very low and did not increase much at all as the government wanted to squeeze the people for every penny they could get to put into industrial development. Soon later, all seemed well, iron and steel industries grew rapidly but then thousands of workers lost their jobs. This was a cause for strikes and rebellions against managers and the government. Also, things were not going very well in the country side. As if being taxed for all you were worth wasn’t enough, there were very bad harvests for a couple of years so now they were starving as well! To return the favour, the peasants became violent and started to burn landlords’ houses. Then the Tzar went to war with Japan which he thought would make the public believe in the government again. However, it backfired on him and caused all the same problems again but by a greater degree. That really infuriated the people! Leading up to the war the peasants and workers still had: *Inadequate clothing *Insufficient and unhealthy food *Long, hard hours at work *Inadequate housing/shelter *Self-made entertainment *Impoverished standard of life *Very low quality of life *Age of death-early 20's-30's. These were the huge differences in the quality of life between the rich and the poor as the rich had: *More than adequate clothing *More than adequate food *Lived on rising and unearned income *Entertainment was provided for them *Excellent standard of life *More than excellent quality of life *Age of death-late 50's, 60's and above In these years leading up to the... ...t. On the 12 March, soldiers refused to fire on crowds, some regiments shot their officers and joined in the demonstrations. They had had enough of the war and the way they were being treated! The soldiers joined the strikers and the women in the streets marched to the Duma to demand that they take control of the government. I think that this was a major turning point. In my opinion it would have taken a much longer time to overthrow the government without the soldiers joining in!! Conclusions. In my opinion, most of the above issues are long term causes, the short term ones were about the lack of equipment and hospital facilities, the incompetence of the officers, inadequate armour, weapons .etc., the massive loss of life and the 25% desertions!! In my opinion, it was not the Tzar’s fault intentionally to be a bad leader. It was his predecessors who did not train him properly. If they had really cared about what was to happen after they had died they would have done something about bringing up proper leaders. I think that they were very careless about choosing leaders but I also feel very sorry for the Tzar, it was NOT his fault!! What Were The Causes Of The Russian Revolution Essay -- essays researc Before the war. Before the war, there were lots of problems which led up to the revolution and we call them the long term causes. The peasants working and living conditions were very bad but the government made it even worse by its own policies. Russia needed to develop its industries, so that it was a modern agricultural country instead of a backward one and also to remain in an important military power. To aid this dilemma the government invested in enormous amounts of money in improving Russia’s industries. Where did most of this money come from? From the pockets of the people in Russia! To do this, the peasants had to pay huge taxes not only on grain but on nearly all everyday items such as alcohol and salt! Nevertheless, the workers’ wages still stayed very low and did not increase much at all as the government wanted to squeeze the people for every penny they could get to put into industrial development. Soon later, all seemed well, iron and steel industries grew rapidly but then thousands of workers lost their jobs. This was a cause for strikes and rebellions against managers and the government. Also, things were not going very well in the country side. As if being taxed for all you were worth wasn’t enough, there were very bad harvests for a couple of years so now they were starving as well! To return the favour, the peasants became violent and started to burn landlords’ houses. Then the Tzar went to war with Japan which he thought would make the public believe in the government again. However, it backfired on him and caused all the same problems again but by a greater degree. That really infuriated the people! Leading up to the war the peasants and workers still had: *Inadequate clothing *Insufficient and unhealthy food *Long, hard hours at work *Inadequate housing/shelter *Self-made entertainment *Impoverished standard of life *Very low quality of life *Age of death-early 20's-30's. These were the huge differences in the quality of life between the rich and the poor as the rich had: *More than adequate clothing *More than adequate food *Lived on rising and unearned income *Entertainment was provided for them *Excellent standard of life *More than excellent quality of life *Age of death-late 50's, 60's and above In these years leading up to the... ...t. On the 12 March, soldiers refused to fire on crowds, some regiments shot their officers and joined in the demonstrations. They had had enough of the war and the way they were being treated! The soldiers joined the strikers and the women in the streets marched to the Duma to demand that they take control of the government. I think that this was a major turning point. In my opinion it would have taken a much longer time to overthrow the government without the soldiers joining in!! Conclusions. In my opinion, most of the above issues are long term causes, the short term ones were about the lack of equipment and hospital facilities, the incompetence of the officers, inadequate armour, weapons .etc., the massive loss of life and the 25% desertions!! In my opinion, it was not the Tzar’s fault intentionally to be a bad leader. It was his predecessors who did not train him properly. If they had really cared about what was to happen after they had died they would have done something about bringing up proper leaders. I think that they were very careless about choosing leaders but I also feel very sorry for the Tzar, it was NOT his fault!!

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Lab 2: Microscopy and the Metric System

Microscopy and the Metric System Margaret E. Vorndam, M. S. Version 42-0090-00-01 Lab Report Assistant This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor. Exercise 1: Measuring Length, Weight, Volume, and Temperature Try the following conversions for practice. 40,000 ng =0. 24mg =0. 00024g50 cm =500 mm =0. 5m Procedure 1. Length: A metric ruler is useful for measuring items of length. The ruler below measures in mm, indicated by the small mm near 0. a. How many mm are there in 1 cm? 10, in a meter (m)? 1000 (Ruler is not to scale. See ruler in dissection kit. ) b. Locate a measurable object to use for this exercise. If the object is long, obt ain a yardstick that includes a cm scale; they can be found in local hardware stores. c. Record the length of the object below and do the conversions: Name of object: ID card . 5 cm=85mm=0. 085m Volume: Always pour an approximate volume of liquid into a clean beaker and then from the beaker into the volumetric flask or graduated cylinder. This will minimize contamination of the parent liquid source. Dispose properly of any leftover liquid. Do NOT pour it back into the original container. Why? This is so the original liquid does not get contaminated. When using a pipet or dropper to measure liquid, pour an aliquot into a clean beaker and then draw up the liquid from the beaker into the pipet. NEVER try to draw up chemicals by mouth.Why? Chemicals could go into your mouth, which is potentially dangerous and should never be done no matter if they deemed â€Å"safe† or not. Weight: Use the pen scale from the lab kit to measure out exactly three grams of sugar. Make sure to tare t he bag before adding the sugar. Why must the bag be tared before adding the sugar? This is done so the weight of the bag is not counted with the weight of the sugar. You must think about the weight of the bag when weighing out the three grams of sugar. How is the weight of the bag accounted for when the sugar is weighed?The bag is weighed first and then the 3 g of sugar is added on top of that weight so at the end the weight is more than 3g total due to the bag. Temperature: Practice converting the following with this conversion formula: 45 °F = 7. 2  °C 62 °F =16. 7  °C 98. 6 °F =37 °C Use a Celsius thermometer to measure the  °C temperature of several different aliquots of cold and warm tap water. Make sure to allow the thermometer to remain until the temperature is stable and no longer changes. Record the temperatures: Cold-15 °C Warm – 29 °C Hot- 48 °C Questions A. What laboratory equipment would be used to measure the following items? g flour| Beaker and scale| 36 mL water| Graduated cylinder| The length of a frog’s leg| ruler| 36 g water| Beaker/balance| 38? C| thermometer| Volume of a turtle*| Water displacement| 125? F| thermometer| Volume of blood| Graduated cylinder| Weight of a plant| Bag and scale| Weight of blood| Beaker and scale| Temperature of a fish’s body| thermometer| Temperature of blood| thermometer| *This answer may require some creativity. How could it be done? B. Provide the calculation steps, including the conversion factor that would be needed to convert the following measurements, and the final answers.Use U. S. and liquid units where appropriate. 248 g| = 248,000 mg| 145,000 ? L| = 145mL| 536 mL| = 536 cc| 0. 372 kg| = 372 g| 0. 75 L| = 750,000 ? L| 20. 39 cm| = . 2039 m| 145,000? L*(10^-6L /1? L)*(1000mL/1L)=145mL .372kg*(1000g/1kg)=372g 20. 39cm*(1m/100cm)=. 2039m 145,000? L*(10^-6L /1? L)*(1000mL/1L)=145mL .372kg*(1000g/1kg)=372g 20. 39cm*(1m/100cm)=. 2039m 248g*(1000mg/1g)=248,000mg 536mL *(1cc/1mL)=536cc 0. 75L*(1? L/10^-6L)=750000 ? L 248g*(1000mg/1g)=248,000mg 536mL*(1cc/1mL)=536cc 0. 75L*(1? L/10^-6L)=750000 ? L C.Provide the calculation steps, including the conversion factor that would be needed to convert the following measurements, and the final answers. Use US and liquid units where appropriate. 3 cups= . 711 L7,893 mg = . 0174 lb 2. 25 oz= 66. 53 cc36? C= 96. 8 ? F 7893mg*(1lb/453592mg)=0. 0174lb 36? C*(9/5)+32=96. 8? F (96? F-32)*(5/9)=35. 56? C 7893mg*(1lb/453592mg)=0. 0174lb 36? C*(9/5)+32=96. 8? F (96? F-32)*(5/9)=35. 56? C 3 cups*(. 237L/1cup)=. 711L 2. 25oz*(29. 57cc/1oz)=66. 53cc 145,000uL*(1tsp/4928. 92uL)= 29. 42tsp 3 cups*(. 237L/1cup)=. 711L 2. 25oz*(29. 57cc/1oz)=66. 53cc 145,000uL*(1tsp/4928. 92uL)= 29. 42tsp 45,000 uL = 29. 42 tsp96? F= 35. 56 ? C D. What advantages does the metric system have over the English method of measurement? What are the disadvantages? The metric system is advantageous because it has a base of ten, making measurements e asier to take, read, understand, and convert. The prefixes are also standard so they transfer between all measurements. Also, more countries use the metric system whereas basically only the US uses the English method. The main disadvantage of the metric system is that Americans have not grown up with these measurements so they are harder to picture and understand what distance, weight, etc. ach measurement is. For example, it is much easier for most Americans to understand the distance of a mile than to try and picture how long a kilometer is. E. Outline the steps necessary to accurately weigh 3. 5 g of starch. This depends on the scale used, but with the pen scale included in the labpaq, tare a bag or other container that can be used. Then add in the starch until the weight on the scale reads the weight of the container plus 3. 5 g. F. Outline the steps necessary to accurately pipet 5 mL of distilled water. Pour an aliquot of distilled water into a clean beaker.Put a little more th an 5mL of distilled water in a beaker. Pipet 5mL from the beaker, and check to see if the bottom of the meniscus lines up with the 5mL line. Exercise 2: Microscopy The compound light microscope effectively magnifies in the range of 40x to 2000x. If an object under view is 10 nm in length without any magnification, what will be its viewing size at 40x? 400nm at 2000x? 20 ? m What is the equivalent size at these magnifications, in inches? Show your calculations. 400nm*(1cm/10^7nm)*(1in/2. 54cm)= 1. 57*10^-5 in. 20? m*(1cm/10^4? m)*(1in/2. 54cm)= 7. 87*10^-4 in.The scanning electron microscope (SEM) employs electron bombardment to image very small specimens. Electron microscopes are used to image specimens that range from 1 nm to 100  µm in size. What is the equivalent in inches? . Show your calculations. 1nm*(1cm/10^7nm)*(1in/2. 54cm)= 3. 94*10^-8 in. 100 ? m*(1cm/10^4? m)*(1in/2. 54cm)= 0. 0039 in. Procedure 1. Parts of the Compound Light Microscope: Refer to a microscope as this s ection is read. Label the microscope diagram that follows as the examination of the microscope proceeds. a. Eyepiece (Ocular Lens): The magnification power is stamped on the outside of the lens.What is the power of the ocular lens? Microscopes may have interchangeable ocular lenses of different magnification. 15x b. Body Tube: Holds the ocular and objective lenses at the correct focal distance. c. Arm: Used to transport microscope and hold the body tube. d. Nosepiece: The revolving device that holds the objective lenses. May also be referred to as the turret. e. Objective Lenses: Consists of one or more lenses: i. The scanning power objective lens is the shortest of the lenses. What is its power? 4x ii. The low-power objective is slightly longer than the scanning objective. What is its power? 10x iii.The high-power objective is longer than the low-power objective. What is its power? 40x Label this microscope diagram with the appropriate part names and their functions: Eye piece- len s that you look through Body tube- Piece that leaves distance between lenses Course adjustment knob- adjusts focus Nosepiece- turns the lenses Objective lenses- magnify objects Stage- holds slides Mirror- reflects light so you can see what’s on the slides Base- bottom of microscope allowing stability Arm- Supports the tube and connects everything Eye piece- lens that you look through Body tube- Piece that leaves distance between lensesCourse adjustment knob- adjusts focus Nosepiece- turns the lenses Objective lenses- magnify objects Stage- holds slides Mirror- reflects light so you can see what’s on the slides Base- bottom of microscope allowing stability Arm- Supports the tube and connects everything a b c d e f g h i Parts not included in microscope are: Light source Source: Sharma, Abhishake. Labeled Microscope Drawing. N. d. Buzzle. com. 2. Focusing the Microscope: If the microscope includes an oil immersion lens, place a drop of immersion oil on the slide cover sl ip before rotating the lens into place.The function of the oil is to minimize light diffraction through the slide and subject so that greater detail can be seen. After using the oil immersion lens, clean excess oil off of the lens and the slide with a lens cloth. Never tilt a microscope when using oil or if viewing a wet slide. Why? The liquid could come off of the slide and get into a place in the microscope that isn’t good for it, and it will be messy also. 3. Operating the Microscope: a. Obtain a clean slide and cover slip from the slide box. Place the slide and cover slip separately on a paper towel or other soft surface to reduce the possibility of scratching them. . With scissors, cut a letter â€Å"e† from an old magazine or newspaper. c. Place the letter in the center of the slide. d. Follow the instructions in Section 6 below to make a wet mount of the letter. e. Following the directions outlined above under Handling and Focusing the Microscope, place the prep ared slide on the microscope stage. Leave the scanning lens in place and focus so that the letter is clearly viewable. Make drawings of the letter in the boxes below as instructed. Side of the slide furthest away from student| Look from the side of the microscope, viewand then draw the letter here, as it appears onthe slide on the stage. | e e Draw the letter here as it appears when viewing it through the microscope. | Side of the slide closest to student| f. What is observed? Microscopes invert the image on the slide. This means that the subject will appear to be 180 ° rotated and reversed from the actual image viewed on the slide. g. While viewing the letter through the lenses, move the slide slightly. What do you observe about the movement of the letter and slide when viewed through the lenses? When I move the slide up, what I’m viewing moves down. When I move the slide to the left, the image moves right. . Use the directions above to view the letter at the higher object ive powers. On the drawing made above, circle the portion of the letter that is viewable as successively higher power observations are made. What is your conclusion about what happens when higher power objectives are used? Only a piece of the top part is viewable. Higher power objectives magnify the image more. 4. Total Magnification Calculation: Typically, the ocular lens of a microscope will be 10x, but it may be higher or lower. The power is recorded on the side of the lens. a.What is the ocular lens power of the microscope that you are using? It may be 10x or 15x. Record it in Table 1. b. The objective lenses also have the magnification power recorded on their sides. What powers do the objective lenses on the microscope have? Record them in Table 1. c. Now, calculate the total magnification of the viewing area by multiplying the power of the ocular lens with that of the objective lens in use. For instance, if a microscope has a 10x magnification ocular lens and a 4x objective le ns in place for viewing, the total magnification will be 40x (10x multiplied by 4x).What other view magnifications are possible with the microscope? Calculate the total magnification for each set of lenses in Table 1. Table 1: Calculating Magnification Ocular Lens Magnification x| Objective LensesMagnification =| Total Magnification| 15x| 4x| 60x| | 10x| 150x| | 40x| 600x| 5. Diameter of Field: a. With the low-power objective in viewing position, place a short transparent metric ruler on the stage. b. While viewing the ruler through the lenses, measure the low-power diameter of field of view in mm. Convert this measurement to ? m and record in Table 2. c.Switch to the other higher power objectives, noting the diameter, in mm, for each in Table 2. Convert measurements to ? m. How might this information be useful when viewing microscopic subjects? Micrometers are smaller, so it is useful for very small objects when mm would be a very small number that wouldn’t be very understan dable. Table 2: Diameter of a Viewing Field | Magnification(ocular x objective lens’powers)| mm diameterof field of view| ? m diameter *of field of view| Scanning Lens| 60x| 2mm| 2000 ? m| Low Power Lens| 150x| 1mm| 1000 ? m| High Power Lens| 600x| Can’t tell,

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The reformation in Wales

Sample details Pages: 24 Words: 7109 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category History Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? The Reformation is one of the most studied, most discussed and heavily analysed periods of English history, arousing controversy and interest through the works of academics and the private study of interested individuals alike. J.A. Froude called it [T]he greatest incident in English history, but it would be just as easy to call it an act of sacrilege motivated by a selfish tyrant, interested more in perpetuating his own line than fulfilling his self-proclaimed role as defender of the faith. No matter the differences of historical opinion, its importance cannot be denied, and nor can its impact. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The reformation in Wales | History" essay for you Create order Yet few authors have deigned to focus on the impact of this turbulent course of events on the principality of Wales, nor has there been much discussion of the role of its governor, Rowland Lee. This essay will do exactly that. It will begin with an analysis of the Reformation Acts as this author has dubbed them, the statutes enacted by Henry with the specific aim ofremaking the English church in his image. These measures affected thecountry as a whole, and any aspects peculiar to Wales will be examined. The essay will continue with a detailed look at the Welsh Acts,†statutes often called (wrongly) Acts of Union. Obviously, their effectis specific to Wales, and the attitudes of the Welsh people will be especially noteworthy here. Finally, the scope of the inquiry will turn to the man who implemented those policies as President of the Council of Wales: Rowland Lee, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. To some he was a blood-thirsty man,the hanging bishop who instigated a re ign of terror. To others he was a skilled and efficient administrator, a man who was given a job to do and who took the actions necessary to its success. Once this essay isfinished, the thoughts of the writer will be well known, it will be upto the reader to make the final judgement. The background to the Reformation is long and complex, and is morethan a simple matter of a childish egotists desire to take what he hasbeen told he cannot have. Nor is the motivation as simple as apolitical need to secure the continuation of his line through the birthof a healthy son. Both of these were factors in Henrys thinking, butthey were not as simplistic as they have been portrayed. Henry was ascholar and had the capacity for intelligent, theoretical and theological thought. The Reformation was in part the end result of atheory of kingship based on the kingship of David in the Bible, and ona notion of imperium, that a king was the sole final arbiter of allmatters within his realm. Unfortunately, we do not have the available time or space to go into the causes of the Reformation in more detail. All that need concern the reader for the purpose of this study is that the Popes refusal to annul Henry VIIIs marriage to Catherine of Aragon (thereby invalidating the papal dispen sation that had made the marriage legal inthe first place) led Henry to break with the Church of Rome and taketotal control of the church in England. The Church of England, as it became known, had the King at its head; he was the defender of the faith, and no foreign power could determine religious policy in his realm, just as it could not determine administrative policies or set taxation. There is a logical (if not theological) sense in this policy,and it was one that fitted with Henrys newfound theory of kingship. (i) The Reformation in General: A Legislative Revolution Henry was a king who ruled with parliament, and this makes analysis ofhis policies easier, since there is a clear legislative framework toalmost every reforming measure he undertook. Indeed, the parliamentthat enacted this legislation was dubbed the Reformation Parliament.It was through Parliament and the legal apparatus at his disposal thatHenry and Cromwell conducted the reformation of the Church, which was to become Henrys church. The birth of the Reformation (at least in legal terms) came in the formof the Act of Restraint of Appeals (1533). It stated that as King ofEngland, Henry owed submission to no man, not even the Pope. The actproceeded on the basis that a king owed allegiance and obedience to Godand God alone. No earthly being could tell him how to interpret theScripture, or prevent him from annulling a marriage he had adjudgedsinful. In both theory and practice, it created an autonomous Church ofEngland, with the King at its head. The Act (as with almost alllegislation) was politically motivated, for (as its name implies) itbarred an English citizen from appealing to the Vatican against anydecision made by an English ecclesiastical court. The motivation forthis was obvious. It meant that if an English ecclesiastical courtruled that the marriage between the King and Catherine of Aragon wasinvalid, Catherine could not appeal to the pope. If she did, anyresponse would have no legal force within the English realm. Since theecclesiastical courts were now as much the kings courts as any otherlegal forum, they would dispense a decision in line with hisinterpretation of the law. This may seem tyrannical and corrupt tomodern eyes, but in Tudor England it made perfect sense. The courtsystem existed because the king was meant to dispense justice but couldnot hope to adjudicate every case himself. Personal intervention ofthis sort was impracticable. With this in mind, for a king to advisethe court of the correct decision was a constitutional act of theutmost legality. Part of the coronation oath was the preservation ofjustice; that is (in theory) all interference in a court case was; theking assuming duties he had previously sworn to perform. It is clear that dealing with his political and marital problems werefar more important to Henry and his government than reforming theChurch itself. The second key measure in the Henrician/Cromwellianreform programme was the Act of Succession (March 1534). The Actconfirmed the bastardy of Mary Tudor, (who had lost her title ofPrincess and was now referred to as the Lady Mary). Mary wasdisinherited and the Princess Elizabeth was named the kings truesuccessor. More importantly, the Act provided that any subject, if soordered, should swear an oath recognising its provisions. Most peoplecomplied without question, but both Thomas More and Bishop John Fisherrefused to take it. Both men paid for this allegiance to the Pope withtheir lives. The Princess Dowager (as Catherine of Aragon was nowdesignated), and her daughter also refused, but their relationship tothe Emperor restrained Henry, who left them to their own devices. It wasnt until later in 1534 (November) that the real changesbegan. The Act of Supremacy gave a legal, statutory definition of thekings position within the structure of this newly created Church ofEngland. It gave the king a statutory title of Supreme Head of theChurch of England and assigned the king all prerogatives to the saiddignity of supreme head of the same church belonging and appertaining.In effect, the pope was being displaced as the head of the church inEngland. Henry of course, had a different view. It was the kings ofEngland who had been displaced by the pope, based on spurious doctrinethat contradicted the Holy Scriptures. God had always intended that theking be master of all matters in his realm. That was why He selectedkings personally, putting them on the throne through his divine powers.His intervention at Bosworth Field had put the Tudors in control of thekingdom of England, and Henry was not about to let some bishop of Romeusurp his God-given authority. That would be to defy the will of God.Naturally, Henry was able to find theologians with concurring views.Richard Sampson, Bishop of Chichester wrote a treatise on the subjectthat made the very point Henry was making in the Act of Succession. Itsaid that The word of God is to obey the King, a nd not the Bishop ofRome.† Despite all of this, the Church of England remained an essentiallyCatholic church, since Henry had little interest in Protestantism.Indeed, many of the measures he did introduce of an evangelical naturewere later reversed. The Ten Articles of 1536 are a prime example ofHenrys attempts to steer a level course between the extremeCatholic/conservative and Anglican/evangelical wings of his new church.He was eager to keep it a broad church, but not willing to countenanceheresy (he burned papists and people who denied the sacraments withequal vigour). They were supposed to constitute a formulary for the newand improved Henrician church and were not without their controversies.For one thing, it only explicitly recognised three sacraments(baptism, penance and the Eucharist), where the Catholic Churchrecognised seven. Emphasis was laid upon the words of the Scriptures,and the merits of simple Christian life (something difficult torecognise in the grandiose magnificence of Renaissance royal courts).It was not however, an anti-Catholic formulation as such. It did notcondemn the Mass, nor did it condemn the Catholic call for good works.It was a balancing act, with a little something for everybody, and Weirhas described it as a tentative move in an evangelical direction. Ifit was such a move, it was one that Henry soon reversed. The Act of SixArticles in 1539 resolved any latent ambiguity that existed in theEnglish church, returning it to a clearly Catholic structure. Clericalmarriage was condemned and the vows of chastity were now held to besacred and unbreakable, which put Archbishop Cranmer in an unfortunateposition as his marriage had been an open secret for some time. He wasundoubtedly not alone in finding himself in what was now a compromisingsituation, and it is somewhat ironic that Henry was enactinglegislation to combat illegal marriages. One thing of course, remainedunchanged; papal supremacy was not restored, nor could it be. Henry hadspent years espousing his own supremacy over the church, and it hadbeen the guiding principle behind his reign for the past decade. Evenif he had wanted to reverse what he had done and re-enter the CatholicChurch, it would be a political mistake of the highest order, and notone that he was prepared to make. Only one man could have dominion overEngland, and that man was its king. (ii) The Dissolution of the Monasteries: Royal Motives and a Welsh Perspective The Dissolution of the Monasteries was seen by some as an unwarrantedattack on a helpless class of people with no means to defendthemselves, and by others as a necessary purging of a corrupt andparasitical class of clergymen who served no pastoral or practicalpurpose. In reality, it was in the main, a land grab. There was anincreasing likelihood of war with France and Henry had gained fewfriends following Englands break with Rome. As the arch-pragmatist andchief minister Cromwell saw it, the monasteries were an untappedresource. Now that the king was overall arbiter of the churchsfuture, he had a legal authority over the monasteries that he had neverhad before. With this new ecclesiastical power came a desire toexercise it. Cromwell managed to push through an extremely efficientprogramme of dissolution, despite the objections of the kings newbride, Jane Seymour. In four short years, all five-hundred andsixty-three religious houses would be closed, and their inmatespensioned off. This freed up an enormous amount of land and finances which, naturallybecame the property of the Crown. With the injection of the abbeysrevenues into the treasury, the royal income doubled. This new moneywould help to finance Henrys extensive (and expensive) buildingprojects and the acquisition of new property (among other things). TheCrown also annexed monastic lands worth  £120, 000 a year, a massiveamount of money at the time, which amounted to one fifth of thekingdoms landed wealth. The Reformation was a time when the king had no significant standingarmy, despite the threat from the Catholic powers of France and Spainand the not unlikely threat of civil rebellion. To offset this risk,Henry redistributed a third of this new land to secure the loyalty ofimportant men, men who he would come to depend on when the northerupted in rebellion in 1536-7. Whilst the church held one quarter of all Welsh land it was notprolific in its membership. In 1500, Cistercian monasteries ave ragedonly six monks. Augustinian monasteries averaged five monks, with theBenedictine order averaging a mere three monks a monastery. Theso-called Great Abbey at Tintern only had thirteen monks. All in all,the dissolution displaced two hundred and fifty monks, nuns and friars,not an extreme number. Indeed, Henry could easily have described them as a minor casualty that benefited the whole nation. The effect on the people of Wales was somewhat more serious, as thepoor relied on the benefactory nature of the Welsh monasteries andpriories. This was a country where fifty per cent of the populationsuffered from malnutrition and an equal percentage of newborn babiesfailed to survive their first year. A lifespan of thirty-five years wasalso not uncommon, which is low, even for medieval Europe. The sheerpoverty and susceptibility to illness (a result of their malnutrition)of the Welsh working class made them dependent on the principalitysforty-six monasteries for alms and food. What mad e this worse was thatall of the Welsh monasteries were relatively poor, and so all of themwere dissolved in the initial cull of the lesser monasteries. In onefell swoop, Welsh monasticism was ended; for the Welsh there was noadjustment period, no breathing space; all of their monasteries went atonce. With the monasteries gone, a vital source of relief was cut off,a fact that no doubt hit hard in poor homes throughout Wales andengendered a lot of distaste for the Tudor regime. A dynasty that theWelsh people had supported at its inception was taking away a vitalsource of support. It was to get worse too, as the new Church ofEngland cracked down on idolatry and (in Welsh eyes) took an axe to thepeoples heritage. (iii) The Idolatry Crackdown: A Welsh Perspective As has been stated above, the Reformation began as an essentiallypolitical process, resolving the question of absolute dominion andwhether the church was to be ruled from Rome or by the divinelyappointed sovereign of the nation in question. However, as the TenArticles of 1536 demonstrates, the Reformation did incorporate somereform of the church into its programme. A part of this thatparticularly affected Wales was the crusade against idolatry andimages. In 1538, Thomas Cromwell issued an Injunction ordering every parishchurch to stock an English bible to be made available for all whowished to read it and interpret the Scriptures themselves. As we willsee below, this was of little benefit to the Welsh. In the same year, asimilar Injunction ordered that every shrine in the country was to bedestroyed. This is where the popular image of thugs running around thecountry smashing up churches comes from, and it is a view that is notwithout some justification. As always, Cromwell was ve ry effective, andeven the shrine of Thomas Becket (one of the countrys holiestpilgrimage places) was lost as a result of the zealous evangelicaldestruction squads. This had a particularly damaging effect on Wales,where cultural-religious relics were highly venerated. In a move thataccorded perfectly with the Reformations attempt to completelyassimilate the Welsh nation and culture, the principalitys relics wereruthlessly swept away, with almost nothing (if anything) surviving thecull. Village processions would often have sacred images carried inthem, these priceless relics were lost. One such relic was the healing cup of Nant Eos. This sacred relicwas in reality no more than a cracked piece of wood, but to the Welshit had mystical powers. Whilst such a phrase sounds laughable to modernears, there is little doubt that the Welsh believed in the cupsproperties. Not only did it have remarkable healing properties, itpossessed the ability to cleanse your soul, keeping you out of hell a ndin extreme cases, it was believed to bring you back from that foulplace of purgatory. To the Welsh therefore, this was not merely avenerated image, but a physical key to salvation and a medical toolthat went far beyond contemporary healing techniques. As we have seen,Tudor Wales was a grim place and to remove relics such as the cup ofNant Eos was to eliminate hope itself for many of the people whobelieved in them. At a time when the Acts of Union were doing theirvery best to dilute and destroy the very basics of Welsh culture, thepolicies of the Reformation were providing a complementary service inthe field of religious relics. (i) Why unify? The Welsh Problem The Welsh problem had been of concern to Henry VIII for some time bythe coming of the Reformation. Even though he had never been anyfarther west than Bristol, he was aware that the country which hadhelped his father to the throne was an alien one, out of step with therest of his realm. In a period of heightened nationalism, thedifferences between the Principality and its ruler were brought into amuch sharper focus, and became more clearly defined as a threat to theuniformity of the Henrician imperium. The Welsh language was an ugly tongue when compared to the Latin,French and Greek he had learned at the hands of his tutors, and it hadan alien sound to it. To a paranoid man, it could also be construed asthe ideal way to foment rebellion; after all, it is hard to root outtraitors when you cannot understand what they are saying It wasnt just the Welsh language that concerned the king. Walesstill had a distinct legal system, based on Gaelic traditions whichwere alien to a country based on Norman ideals. The Welsh system was sodifferent that it did not even recognise the English distinctionbetween civil and criminal cases; one of the central tenets of thecommon law system. Outrageously to a modern western audience,manslaughter and deliberate homicide were not even considered realcrimes. In England, such acts were offences against the community, tobe judged in royal courts, and nothing could alter the prosecutorsright to pursue a criminal case. In Wales (and Ireland), it was the kinwho had been wronged, and they who sought a remedy, and as in somemodern cultures, the family could seek financial reparations. None of this was, strictly speaking, a threat to society, or the soundadministration of the Principality. What was (or at least should havebeen) a genuine cause for central concern was that the conquest had notmanaged to eliminate the operation of the law of galanas, a lawregarding blood feuds and the appropriate resolution of such disputes.The principl e of compensation was fundamental to the justice of thefeud, and it is not impossible that compensation could have included alife in return for a life. As we have seen above, tolerance was not one of Henry VIIIs qualities.He did not recognise alternative forms and systems of justice,especially when they were operating in his imperium. The root cause ofthe Reformation was his determination to see that his law was the law,and that no legal system, ecclesiastical or civil, could co-exist withhis own. Henry himself said that the Welsh laws were sinister usagesand customs used by the lords of the March for thraldom and tyranny. Of a more practical concern, there was a serious problem with law andorder throughout Wales and it was this that was the root cause ofHenrys acts of union. As Henry himself said in 1520: realms withoutjustice be but tyrannies and robberies Wales was not as much of aproblem as the Marches, which were a patchwork of autonomous fiefdoms,where lawlessness and vi olence abounded. The main problem with theMarcher lordships was centuries old. The constant threat of rebellionin Wales had led to the Marches becoming a buffer zone between thePrincipality and England, a medieval Rhineland, designed to keep theWelsh wolf from the door. To combat the Welsh threat, extensive powershad been delegated to the Marcher lords, powers that had never beenreclaimed. Within any one lordship, the lord had legislative power and,as Susan Brigden has said, they possessed virtual judicialomnicompetence within their own domain. There were a total of onehundred and thirty-seven separate jurisdictions where the kings writsimply did not run. They were notorious hideouts for outlaws andcriminals, a situation not helped by the fact that a murderer couldsimply cross state lines into another lordship to avoid punishment.For serious, career criminals the Marches were a safe haven that theking could simply no longer permit. The situation is believed to havebeen so bad that J .A. Williamson described Wales as wild anduntroubled by Parliaments laws, or by any law at all, being in aworse state of crime and disorder than England had been in the civilwars. For a king so obsessed with sovereignty and control over hisown domains, reform of the Marches and the principality as a whole wassimply a matter of time. All of these things, coupled with thetheoretical imperative that England was an empire, ensured that theActs of Union were not a long time coming. (ii) The Acts of Union: Aims and Effects Before the Acts are examined, one thing must be made clear; Henrywanted control of Wales, he did not want to set up an effective Welshgovernment, capable of managing its own affairs and getting a grip onlaw and order. He was not interested in bolstering the Welshadministration by giving them the tools to get the job done. What hewanted was a full scale incorporation of the Principality into theEnglish sovereignty. Once this was accomplished, the traditionalEnglish mechanisms could see to law and order in the tried and testedways. As has been exhaustively discussed above, the biggest problem wasthat the very nature of the Marcher lordships hindered the maintenanceof law and order. Therefore, they were a primary target of the 1536 Actwhich saw to their abolition. Some were combined with the unshiredWelsh lands to create the new counties of Monmouth, Brecon, Radnor,Montgomery and Denbigh (in 1543 Monmouth was transferred to England andtwo new counties of Glamorgan and Pembroke were cr eated). The rest ofthe lordships were incorporated into adjacent English counties. Crimescommitted in Marcher lordships could not be avoided by fleeing toanother jurisdiction; they were to be tried in English courts. Thepractice of cymortha, the imposition of obligatory gifts (a majorsource of revenue for Marcher lords) was forbidden. Any Marcherlordship official deemed guilty of corruption or oppression could betried and punished by the Council of Wales, whose powers wereincreased. The patchwork of anarchy had been abolished. Welsh law was another target of the 1536 Act. Henrys distrust of alienjurisdictions could lead to only one natural outcome; English law wasestablished as the law of the land throughout Wales. There were to beno more dual systems, with Welsh and English law operating side byside; from 1534 onwards, the Welsh legal system was no more differentto the national system than was the Sussex or Derbyshire legal system.English rules of tenure and inheritance replaced older Welsh customs.There was only one law in Wales: the Kings law. Of course, the change in legal structure would have meant nothingwithout the mechanisms and means to enforce it. Courts of greatsessions and Justices of the Peace were introduced to bring the Englishcommon law to Wales. The Council of Wales (which sat in Ludlow castlein Shropshire) was now the equivalent of a Welsh Privy Council andCourt of Star Chamber combined, and under the leadership of BishopRowland Lee, was responsible for enforcing the law in Wales (below, wewill examine the success and question the methods of Bishop Lee). To ensure the erosion of the Welsh language, English was to be thenational legal language of Wales. All court hearings were to beconducted in English (which caused obvious problems) and all publicofficials in Wales had to speak English. This was a clever move, itwedded the Welsh gentry to the Crown, anglicising them and driving afirm wedge between them and the Welsh lower classes. An y student ofhistory knows that a revolution needs the support of the middleclasses; the Act of Union ensured there was no benefit to suchco-operation. The Acts of 1536 and 1543 were not all bad news for the people ofWales. Indeed, they had some very tangible benefits. For one thing, thelegal distinctions between Henrys English and Welsh subjects wereeliminated. The Welsh were no longer second class citizens, they couldexpect the same level of due process as their English neighbours anddecades-long impediments to the acquisition and inheritance of landwere therefore removed. Whilst Welsh courts operated on Englishprinciples they were not answerable to Westminster but to theChanceries in Caernarfon and Carmarthen; thereby giving the Welshcourts an autonomy granted to no other section of the kingdom. Mostimportantly to modern eyes (although the reaction at the time wasprobably fairly moderate), the 1536 Act entitled Wales torepresentation at Parliament for the first time in its hist ory. In 1543it sent twenty-seven MPs to Westminster. Clearly, the incorporationinto England was total, with Wales deriving the benefits as well as thecultural assaults of a full-blown union with England. Whilst somehistorians claim that the Statute of Rhuddlan (1284) created a unionbetween the two countries, this is somewhat short-sighted. Rhuddlan putWales under the auspices of the English kings, but it made Wales acolony, where its own inhabitants were left to their own devices andtreated as less than their English counterparts. Whilst the acts of1536 and 1543 were a clear attempt to assimilate and dissipate theWelsh culture, it also took positive steps to bring the Welsh into thefold, giving them rights they had never before enjoyed. In Henryscase, the lord giveth at the same time as the lord taketh away.Whatever the pros and cons of Henrician reforms, the Welsh language isstill alive over four hundred and fifty years later, and the Welshcontinue to be proud of their culture and their history. Rowland Lee was appointed president of the Council of Wales as partof a move to gain greater central control of the realm. In Ireland, theEarl of Kildare was replaced as governor by Sir William Skeffington (amilitary captain) and Lord Dacre was replaced as warden of the westmarches in the north by the Earl of Cumberland. All of this happened inthe space of a single month. As has been outlined above, Wales was ananarchic area, in need of a firm hand. Lee was to be that hand, andover the next nine years he conducted what some historians wouldcharacterise as a reign of terror. Like any sensible person, and in line with the thoughts of hissovereign, Lee was alive to the possibility that a Catholic nation suchas France or Spain was likely to invade. Lee took active measures todefend the coasts, recruiting soldiers and hunting out resources torepair the royal castles which had been falling into disrepair. At thetime of their construction, Welsh castles such as those b uilt by EdwardI were designed as Welsh outposts, military strongholds in a freshlyconquered and belligerent colony. By the 1530s, the age ofcastle-building was over. Having mentioned above that Henry VIII hadused the monastic income to fund his extensive building projects; thismay surprise the reader of this piece. But do not be surprised. HenryVIII was a palace builder. He wanted large, glamorous and opulentresidences to relax in and house a Renaissance court that was worthy ofthe name. The type of uncomfortable and old-fashioned castle thatEdward I had deemed necessary in the thirteenth century was deemed ananachronism. They were also hugely expensive. This meant that Lee hadto make do with the castles he already had and hope that there wasntan invasion. Since his prayers were answered in this respect, we cannotjudge Lees success in this area. All we can say is that he seems tohave taken all the precautions a reasonable man could have taken. Lees greatest success and the bigges t anvil dragging his reputationdown is his policy regarding law and order. This essay has discussed atsome length the lawlessness and turbulence that abounded in the WelshMarches prior to the arrival of Bishop Lee. His reports were in partresponsible for the reforms found in the 1536 Act, an act which gavethe Council of Wales the means to take Welsh matters in hand. Itensured that the patchwork of private judicial enclaves and palatinatesbecame a large English common law blanket under Lee’s jurisdiction.There is no doubt that Lee earned his nickname of the hanging bishop.Indeed, his entire policy on law and order was to hang people, the morethe better. Hanging was to be done frequently and publicly, especiallyif the criminal in question was of a more respectable background thanthe common criminal. Davies credits Lee with saying that executing agentleman was better than dispatching a hundred petty wretches andclaims he boasted that he had executed four of the best blood inShro pshire. Even if this is true, it is a sound policy. One of themajor scourges of the Wars of the Roses had been the major families andtheir constant liberty-taking where the law was concerned. Greatfamilies would wage private wars and other nobles would keep a hold ontheir territories by fear and licensing thugs and criminals to run riotthroughout their lands. The Marcher lordships were no different. Therewas little respect for the law. One way to instil a healthy fearfulrespect of the law was to prove that no-one was above it. If a wealthylanded gentleman could swing from the gallows for a crime then anyonecould. This author is no fan of capital punishment and would point tothe fact that people still kill each other in states where the deathpenalty exists. But in the case of Bishop Lee, it would be incrediblydifficult to argue that his policy of hanging did not act as adeterrent. The Marches and the rest of the principality quickly fellinto line. The chronicler Elis Gruffyd claims t hat Lee executed fivethousand men in six years and this would certainly accord with theprinciple ascribed to Lee that it was better to hang a hundred innocentmen than let a guilty one escape the noose. If Lee really did despatchfive thousand souls to meet their maker, then it is easy to see whyWales became a more orderly region under his rule. In 1538, the manhimself said that order and quiet such as is now in England prevailedall over Wales. A key question when determining Lees success is the extent to whichLee benefited from the reforms of 1536, and whether the success of Leewas really the success of administrative reform as imposed byWestminster. After all, the key thread running through the criticism of the Marcherlordships is that they lacked a uniform legal system and an effectiveand unified administrative machine. The Act of 1536 gave Wales boththese things and therefore, the argument could be made, brought orderto the Principality. Before this argument is debunked, it is necessaryto give it a full airing by going over exactly how the Act aided BishopLees pursuit of order. Much was made in the previous section of the legal, jurisdictional andpolitical patchwork that existed in the Marches. Naturally this causedserious administrative problems for Bishop Lee. The extensive rightsgranted to the Marcher lords in the previous century still existed,even if the political and military justification for such a delegationof royal authority no longer did. This left the Council prettypowerless where the lordships were concerned, and meant that any reformLee undertook had to be confined to the Principality. Not that that wasan easy task, for the Principality had, in many places, Welsh andEnglish law operating side by side. These jurisdictional problems weresolved in one fell swoop by the 1536 Act; Lee went from having littleor no jurisdiction to having legal authority over all of Wales. Withoutthis reform of Marcher and Principality law, Lees task would have beenmuch more difficult than it was. Lee now had the power to punishmurderers and other criminals who had previously been out of reach,hiding out in the Marches and hopping from lordship to lordship toavoid justice. The introduction of one law and one jurisdiction madeLees task infinitely easier, as did his newfound ability to punishMarcher officials for corruption and oppression. The creation of Courts of Great Sessions and Justices of the Peace alsoaided Lee in his work. He was now at the head of a legal machine thatworked as a single unit, in a system where neighbouring counties couldwork together, rather than in competition with each other. It is important to realise that Henry VIII did not wake up one morningand decide to unify England and Wales. Lee was appointed president ofthe council in 1534, and it was as a result of his reports on the Welshsituation that the 1536 Act came about. So, even if you (falsely)attribute the success of Rowland Lee to the administrative and legalreform enacted by Parliament, he must gain some credit for helping tobe the architect of his own success. Whilst the reforms brought about by the so called Act of Union were akey factor in the restoration of order to the Principality, it would befoolish to think that reform alone could achieve the successfulestablishment of stability that Rowland Lee oversaw. The singularstep-change that Wales experienced in the 1530s and 1540s was notachieved with the wave of a statutory magic wand and the utterance of afew magic words. For one thing, the reforms had to be implemented. Thattask was assigned to Rowland Lee. Once he had successfully implementedthe Act of Union, he had to tackle the pressing issue of law and order.A clear legal framework, combined with efficient administrativemachinery do not bring an end to anarchic lawlessness on their own.They need to be guided by policy, which has to be devised by thegovernment. In Wales case, Rowland Lee was the governor, and heinstituted a clear policy with regards to law and order. It wasunquestionably his own, and without his zeal and determination, theWelsh problem would have not been resolved so quickly. Legal reform wasa boon to be sure, but Wales needed to be brought under control, andthat needed a firm hand. Whatever the criticisms of Bishop Lee, hisfirmness and assertion of authority were undeniable. Indeed, as luckyas Lee was to be president at a time of legal reform and consolidation,Henry was lucky to have a reliable and effective administrator incharge of that reform. Lee is supposed to have said that he wouldrather execute one hundred innocent people than allow one guilty man toescape justice. This is the antithesis of modern thinking and offensiveto modern sensibilities. Whilst Lees policy of rough justice may makemodern observers tut and shake their heads, it got the job done, andthat, above all, was what Henry really needed from Rowland Lee. It is difficult for modern observers to give credit to Rowland Leebecause his methods seem so barbaric to todays supposedly evolvedsense of ethics and morality. However, it is important to remember thatRowland Lee did not live in modern times. Tudor politicians were notmerely modern politicians dressed in outlandish clothes and speaking inan antiquated manner. They were creatures of their period, inhabitantsof another world, with ethical and moral standards of conduct whichwould seem alien to modern people. They were men who often resorted toviolence, for they lived in a violent time, when the end of a politicalcareer was usually caused by death, natural or otherwise. In politics,death was an occupational hazard. It was also an acceptable tactic.Henry VIII certainly had no qualms about resorting to violence. BishopFisher and Thomas More were executed for treason; understandable, untilyou discover that their treachery was a refusal to acknowledge the kingas Supreme Governor of the Church. Henry was so comfortable with deaththat he exe cuted two of his own wives. Weir quite rightly states thatHe ruled on the precept that fear engenders obedience It is hardlysurprising that Lee adopted the same tactic. Lee was such a fearsomefigure that Welsh mothers would tell their children to behave orRowland Lee would come to get them. He was the Welsh equivalent of theBogeyman. French Ambassador Marillac observed that The King willnot cease to dip his hand in blood This would be an equally faircomment regarding his own master, Francis I. Judicial homicide was anacceptable political tool, so he can hardly blame Lee for using it in aconstructive manner, enforcing the law and keeping the peace, ratherthan executing people who refused to acknowledge his greatness. In thecontext of the time, Lees policy was a sensible one. Indeed, if he wasto have any hope of restoring order to an area of chaos, it is hard tosee what other action he could have taken. If he had done nothing, hewould have been deemed incompetent in both our era and h is own. It isunderstandable that in the modern era, there is criticism of stateexecutions, but in a time when the worlds only hyper-power executespeople who were legally juveniles when they committed their crimes,labelling Rowland Lee as some kind of gung-ho gallows jockey is unfairand lacks a sense of realism. Rowland Lee was a successfuladministrator who brought peace to a troubled area. You can questionhis methods, but you cannot question his success. To further illustrate Lees success, it is necessary to look at eventsoutside of his sphere of influence. For we shall see that Leesgreatest success was not what he achieved, but what he managed toprevent. Wales was not the only problem spot in Henrys imperium. The north ofEngland had caused problems for almost every monarch since Edward II,and the second Tudor king was not spared the regions wrath. Given the willingness of men like More and Fisher to die for what theybelieved, it is unsurprising that there were also men willing to fightfor it, although it undoubtedly surprised Henry just how many of hissubjects were willing to do so. The rebellion was known as the Pilgrimage of Grace, and it lasted fromOctober 1536 to the spring of 1537. It began in Lincolnshire, andinvolved thousands of malcontents, led by Robert Aske. It wassufficiently large to prevent Henry from crushing it as he was no doubteager to do. He had just reformed the Church to prevent a Roman bishoptelling him what he could and could not do in his own imperium andthere was no way that he was going to allow some northern mob to defyhim and dictate terms to their sovereign king. Unfortunately, he didnot have a lot of choice in the matter. Henry simply did not possessthe troops to put the rebellion down instantly and so, in December1536, he was forced to negotiate a truce. Within a month Yorkshire alsorebelled, but that revolt was swiftly put down, and by the spring Henryhad ended the Pilgrimage, executing Aske and approximately two hundre dof his followers. Whilst all of this was going on, Wales remained peaceful. There was noviolence, and there was no uprising. Again, Lee was somewhat fortunate.There was no Aske-like figure in Wales, no strong leadership togalvanise the passive resistance into something more active andrebellious. The gentry were certainly unlikely to provide suchleadership; the unification of Wales and England had given them accessto offices and land that they had hitherto been barred from. They werein no mood to rock the boat. All that being true, considering whatWales was like before Lees policy of hanging was implemented with suchvigour, it is surprising that the Principality did not attempt even anabortive rising. Again, this is down to the policies of the Bishop ofCoventry and Lichfield. Henry had identified Wales as a potentialtrouble spot and sent Lee, a trusted man (who may well have married theKing to his second wife, Anne Boleyn) to drag the region kicking andscreaming into the English sphere and wrest control from the Marcherlords and the criminals. Lee did his job so successfully, that by thetime of the Pilgrimage, Wales was one of the least likely sites ofrevolt outside of London. This was some achievement and Rowland Leedeserves credit for it. Almost all historical figures of any note are controversial, and HenryVIII is no exception. Some see him as a man who redefined the theory ofEnglish kingship by breaking free of Rome and establishing himself assole defender of the faith, a title that the current monarch stillpossesses. Others see him as a promising young King who becameincreasingly paranoid, egotistical and violent, his promise goinglargely unfulfilled. The harshest view is of a self-righteous,self-important fat prig, who perverted the function of his office tofulfil his own personal and political desires. However, in this authors mind, the most pressing image is that of Henry as an arch-opportunist. As the 1520s wore on, Henry became increasingly unhappy with hismarriage, and determined to marry a woman who could deliver him anheir. So, he seized upon the biblical doctrine preventing a man frommarrying his brothers wife. This was something that had never botheredhim before, but which was suddenly so pressing an issue on hisconscience that he had to break with the Catholic Church and set up hisown Church of England. Since he no longer cared what the pope thought of him, he then saw thatthe monasteries in his realm were a goldmine waiting for him to goprospecting, and he did so at the first opportunity. He didnt seem tocare that despite the corruption of some of the monastic houses, manyof them provided a public service to the poorer sections of Englishsociety. His new theory of imperial kingship then gave him the opportunity to goafter the Welsh, a pressing problem that had taken twenty years to gethis attention. In fact, if the realm had not been at risk as a resultof his schism with the Vatican, Wales may well have bee n left alone. The entire Reformation was an opportunity for Henry to feed his ego,and his inflated sense of self-importance which went beyond the usualroyal belief in divine appointment. Rowland Lee could also be described as an opportunist. He used hisposition as a trusted servant to inaugurate the unification process,which would give him greater power over the area he had been assigned,and give him an opportunity to impress the king and possibly climb upthe social and political ladder, an opportunity denied to him by hisdeath in 1543, the year of the second act of Union. It is fair to saythat he could have accomplished what he did under any king, but thatthe nature of the king he served, and the time he lived in, made thecircumstances ideal. To class his rule of Wales as anything other thanan administrative and political success would not seem to accord withthe facts. Rowland Lee took an anarchic and lawless principality andthrough a policy of zero tolerance and sound admini stration, turned itinto a far more lawful and peaceful area. His period of governance mayhave seen the attempted dilution of Welsh culture, but it also gaveWelshmen equal status and political representation in the countrysseat of government; two things they had never had before. All in all,that was some achievement. BIBLIOGRAPHY Brigden, S. New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors, 1485-1603, Penguin (2000) Davies, J. A History of Wales, Penguin, (1994) Fraser, A. The Six Wives of Henry VIII, Phoenix (2002) Froude, J.A. The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon, (1891) Hall, E, Chronicle, Macculloch, D (Ed). The Reign of Henry VIII: Politics, Policy and Piety, Macmillan (1995) Mackenney, R. Sixteenth Century Europe: Expansion and Conflict, Macmillan (1993) Rex, R, Henry VIII and his Church, Weir, A. Henry VIII: King and Court, Pimlico (2002) Weir, A. The Six Wives of Henry VIII, Pimlico (1992) Williamson, J.A. The Tudor Age, Longman, (1979)